7/92 - Present
Remote Access Dermatology Research.
Member of the American Academy of Dermatology Telemedicine Interest
Group and the President's Special Committee on Technology.
Founder, The Internet Dermatology Society.
Founder and Chief Editor, Global Dermatology Grand Rounds, an
Internet based forum for exchange of challenging dermatology
Telemedicine Editor, Dermatology Online Journal.
May, 1993 - initiated remote access service to St. Joseph Family
Medicine Center for the purpose of enhancing family practice
December, 1994 - founded Global Dermatology Grand Rounds, an
Internet-based high-level teledermatology application.
February, 1995 - founded the Internet Dermatology Society.
August, 1995 - produced the web site for the Society for Investigative
September, 1995 - demonstrated the use of the web as an organizing
structure for off-line dermatology lectures to primary care
physicians using materials from the Electronic Textbook of Dermatology.
July, 2000 - submitted a patent on Total Immersion Photography
for Skin Disease Documentation.
11/89 - 3/90
Research associate, University of Michigan, Immunoprecipitation
of phosphotyrosinated substrates of epidermal growth factor
receptor. Sponsor: J.T. Elder, M.D. Ph.D.
10/85 - 9/86
Research associate, New York Medical College, part-time from
October to May studying immunofluorescent staining and cytolytic
assays with lymphokine-activated natural killer (LANK) cells;
full-time, from June to September, performing c-DNA library
screening for the nucleotide sequence of perforin-1, a component
of LANK cell granules. Sponsor: E.R. Podack, M.D.
7/85 - 8/85
Summer student fellowship, New York Medical College, studying
the influence of the cyclosporin A binding protein, cyclophilin,
on mitogen stimulated human peripheral blood lymphocytes. Co-sponsors:
J.W. Chiao, Ph.D. and R.E. Handschumacher, Ph.D.
11/82 - 8/84
Research assistant, Yale University School of Medicine, isolation
and purification of cyclophilin, the putative receptor for cyclosporin
A. Cyclosporin A metabolite studies. Sponsor: R.E. Handschumacher,
Presentations and Publications
Latest Publication: J Am Acad Dermatol 1999 Nov;41(5 Pt 1):693-702
Reliability and accuracy of dermatologists' clinic-based and
digital image consultations.
Whited JD, Hall RP, Simel DL, Foy ME, Stechuchak KM, Drugge
RJ, Grichnik JM, Myers SA, Horner RD
Institute for Clinical and Epidemiologic Research, Veterans
Affairs (VA) Medical Center, Durham, North Carolina 27705, USA.
BACKGROUND: Telemedicine technology holds great promise for
dermatologic health care delivery. However, the clinical outcomes
of digital image consultations (teledermatology) must be compared
with traditional clinic-based consultations. OBJECTIVE: Our
purpose was to assess and compare the reliability and accuracy
of dermatologists' diagnoses and management recommendations
for clinic-based and digital image consultations. METHODS: One
hundred sixty-eight lesions found among 129 patients were independently
examined by 2 clinic-based dermatologists and 3 different digital
image dermatologist consultants. The reliability and accuracy
of the examiners' diagnoses and the reliability of their management
recommendations were compared. RESULTS: Proportion agreement
among clinic-based examiners for their single most likely diagnosis
was 0. 54 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.46-0.61) and was
0.92 (95% CI, 0. 88-0.96) when ratings included differential
diagnoses. Digital image consultants provided diagnoses that
were comparably reliable to the clinic-based examiners. Agreement
on management recommendations was variable. Digital image and
clinic-based consultants displayed similar diagnostic accuracy.
CONCLUSION: Digital image consultations result in reliable and
accurate diagnostic outcomes when compared with traditional
J D Whited, B J Mills, R P Hall, R J Drugge, J M Grichnik and D L Simel
A pilot trial of digital imaging in skin cancer, Journal of Telemedicine and Telecare, April 1998.
A. Bittorf, N.C. Krejci-Papa, T. Ray, A. Huntley, D.C. Collison,
R. Drugge, D. Hiller, M. Bergmann, T.L. Diepgen1, Applications
of the WWW: A Multicentered Dermatologic Image Database, poster
presentation, 3rd WWW Conference, May 1995.
Chan, LS, Fine, JD, Briggaman, RA, Woodley, DT, Hammerberg,
C, Drugge, RJ, Cooper KD, Identification and partial characterization
of a novel 105-kDalton lower lamina lucida autoantigen associated
with a novel immune- mediated subepidermal blistering disease.:
J Invest Dermatol (1993 Sep) 101(3):262-7
Elder, JT, Pepinsky, RB, Drugge, RJ, Voorhees, JJ, Wallner,
B, Increased expression of lipocortin I mRNA, but not lipocortin
I protein, in psoriasis. poster presentation, Society of Investigative
Dermatology, May 1990.
Drugge, RJ, Handschumacher, RE, Cyclosporine: mechanism of action.
Transplantation Proc., Vol. XX, No. 2, Suppl 2: 301, 1988.
Handschumacher, RE, Harding, MW, Rice, J, Drugge, RJ, Speicher,
DW, Cyclophilin: a specific cytosolic binding protein for cyclosporin
A. Science, 226: 544, 1984.
Internet Web-based publications (currently active)
Textbook of Dermatology, R.J. Drugge, Founding Editor and
Online Journal, Internet Editor, R.J. Drugge, 1996-present